Contour Crafting Process Plan Optimization Part I: Single-Nozzle Case

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, University of Sothern California, USA

Abstract

Contour Crafting is an emerging technology that uses robotics to construct free form building structures by repeatedly laying down layers of material such as concrete. The Contour Crafting technology scales up automated additive fabrication from building small industrial parts to constructing buildings. Tool path planning and optimization for Contour Crafting benefit the technology by increasing the efficiency of construction especially for complicated structures. The research reported here has aimed at providing a systematic solution for improving the overall system efficiency and realizing the Contour Crafting technology for building customdesigned houses. In Part-I of this paper, an approach is presented to find the optimal tool path for the single nozzle Contour Crafting system. The model developed incorporates the physical constraints of the technology as well as some practical construction issues. In Part-II several algorithms are presented to find the collision-free tool paths for the multiple-nozzle system based on the algorithm developed for the single nozzle approach.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Han Y.-K, Jang C.-D (1999), An Approach to Efficient Nesting and Cutting Path Optimization of
Irregular Shapes; Journal of ShipProduction 15(3); 129-135.
[2] Helsgaun K. (2000), An effective implementation of the Lin-Kernighan traveling salesman heuristic;
European Journal of Operational Research 126(1); 106-130.
[3] Israni S., Manber U. (1984), Pierce Point Minimization and Optimal Torch Path Determination in
Flame Cutting; Journal of Manufacturing Systems 3(1); 81-89.
[4] Issa, Raja R.A. (1999), State of the Art Report: Virtual Reality in Construction; International Council
for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB).
[5] Khoshnevis B. (1999), Contour Crafting - State of Development; Solid Freeform Fabrication
Proceedings 1999; 743-750.

[6] Khoshnevis B. (2004), Automated construction by Contour Crafting - Related robotics and information
technologies; Automation in Construction 12; 5-19
[7] Lawler E. L., Jan Karel Lenstra, Rinnooy Khan A.H.G., Shmoys D.B. (1985), The Traveling Salesman
Problem; A Guided Tour of Combinatorial Optimization.
[8] Lin S., Kernighan B. (1973), An Effective Heuristic Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem;
Operations Research 21; 498-516.
[9] Pease III, L.F. (1998), Rapid Prototyping Methods; ASM Handbook Volume 7:Powder Metal
Technologies and Applications.
[10] Tang K., Pang A. (2003), Optimal connection of loops in laminated object manufacturing; CAD
Computer Aided Design 35(11); 1011–1022.
[11] Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest (1990), Introduction to Algorithms; The
MIT Press; 465-467.
[12] Trager M. (1998), Optimizing Laser Cutting; Industrial Laser Review.
[13] Wah P.K., Murty K.G., Joneja A., Chiu L.C. (2002), Tool path optimization in layered manufacturing;
IIE Transactions 34(4); 335-347.
[14] Yeh Z. (2003), Trowel-Path Planning For Contour Crafting; Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern
California.
[15] Concorde TSP Solver, http://www.tsp.gatech.edu/concorde.html, January 2005.