Uncovering the hidden relation between air pollution and ischemic heart disease: Experience from Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Nowadays, air pollution is one of the pressing environmental issues, and it causes different diseases especially cardiac and respiratory ones. The relation between air pollutants (including PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3) and heart-pulmonary diseases (ischemic, angina, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) is studied in Tehran, the most polluted city of Iran. Air quality data related to all pollutants PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3 have been gathered. The relation between the pollutants and the number of admitted heart-pulmonary diseases patients is modeled by using radial basis function (RBF), multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks, and ANFIS in terms of MSE and correlation coefficient. In each network, pollutants are assumed as inputs, and heart-pulmonary diseases are considered as an output of the network. The experiments show that the ANFIS network has more accuracy than MLP and RBF. Moreover, the obtained results in the ANFIS network show that the correlation coefficient between ischemic and NO2, angina and CO, pneumonia and PM10 and COPD and (PM10 & PM2.5) respectively are 0.7229, 0.7006, 0.81 and (0.7280 & 0.7249).


Main Subjects

Alam, M. J., Ouellet, P., Kenny, P., & O’Shaughnessy, D. (2011). Comparative evaluation of feature normalization techniques for speaker verification. In International Conference on Nonlinear Speech Processing (pp. 246-253). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.‏
Amini, S., Taki, M., & Rohani, A. (2020). Applied improved RBF neural network model for predicting the broiler output energies. Applied Soft Computing, 87, 106006.‏
Aramesh, A., Montazerin, N., & Ahmadi, A. (2014). A general neural and fuzzy-neural algorithm for natural gas flow prediction in city gate stations. Energy and Buildings, 72, 73-79.‏
Bahiraei, M., Nazari, S., Moayedi, H., & Safarzadeh, H. (2020). Using neural network optimized by imperialist competition method and genetic algorithm to predict water productivity of a nanofluid-based solar still equipped with thermoelectric modules. Powder Technology, 366, 571-586.‏
Camacho, I., Camacho, J., Camacho, R., Góis, A., & Nóbrega, V. (2020). Influence of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in Madeira (Portugal). Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 231(3), 1-15.‏
Chen, R., Pan, G., Kan, H., Tan, J., Song, W., Wu, Z., ... & Chen, B. (2010). Ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Anshan, China: a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. Science of the total environment, 408(24), 6086-6091.‏
Chen, X. (2017). Effect of particulate air pollution on coronary heart disease in China: Evidence from threshold GAM and Bayesian hierarchical model. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 101, 35-42.‏
Dai, X., Liu, H., Chen, D., & Zhang, J. (2018). Association between ambient particulate matter concentrations and hospitalization for ischemic heart disease (I20-I25, ICD-10) in China: A multicity case-crossover study. Atmospheric Environment, 186, 129-135.‏
Dastoorpoor, M., Sekhavatpour, Z., Masoumi, K., Mohammadi, M. J., Aghababaeian, H., Khanjani, N., ... & Vahedian, M. (2019). Air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Ahvaz, Iran. Science of the Total Environment, 652, 1318-1330.‏
Ebrahimi, S. J. A., Ebrahimzadeh, L., Eslami, A., & Bidarpoor, F. (2014). Effects of dust storm events on emergency admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Sanandaj, Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 12(1), 110.‏
Franck, U., Leitte, A. M., & Suppan, P. (2015). Multifactorial airborne exposures and respiratory hospital admissions—The example of Santiago de Chile. Science of the Total Environment, 502, 114-121.‏
Goldberg, M. S., Burnett, R. T., Stieb, D. M., Brophy, J. M., Daskalopoulou, S. S., Valois, M. F., & Brook, J. R. (2013). Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among elderly persons in Montreal, Quebec. Science of the Total Environment, 463, 931-942.‏
Guo, Y., Barnett, A. G., Zhang, Y., Tong, S., Yu, W., & Pan, X. (2010). The short-term effect of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in Tianjin, China: Comparison of time series and case–crossover analyses. Science of the Total Environment, 409(2), 300-306.‏
Guo, Y., Jia, Y., Pan, X., Liu, L., & Wichmann, H. E. (2009). The association between fine particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in Beijing, China. Science of the total environment, 407(17), 4826-4830.‏
Hansen, A., Bi, P., Nitschke, M., Pisaniello, D., Ryan, P., Sullivan, T., & Barnett, A. G. (2012). Particulate air pollution and cardiorespiratory hospital admissions in a temperate Australian city: a case-crossover analysis. Science of the total environment, 416, 48-52.‏
Iwai, K., Mizuno, S., Miyasaka, Y., & Mori, T. (2005). Correlation between suspended particles in the environmental air and causes of disease among inhabitants: cross-sectional studies using the vital statistics and air pollution data in Japan. Environmental Research, 99(1), 106-117.‏
Yorifuji, T., Suzuki, E., & Kashima, S. (2014). Cardiovascular emergency hospital visits and hourly changes in air pollution. Stroke, 45(5), 1264-1268.‏
Kampa, M., & Castanas, E. (2008). Human health effects of air pollution. Environmental pollution, 151(2), 362-367.‏
Karray, F., Karray, F. O., & De Silva, C. W. (2004). Soft computing and intelligent systems design: theory, tools, and applications. Pearson Education.‏
Khalilzadeh, S., Khalilzadeh, Z., Emami, H., & Masjedi, M. R. (2009). The relation between air pollution and cardiorespiratory admissions in Tehran.
Khamutian, R., Sharafi, K., Najafi, F., & Shahhoseini, M. (2014). Association of air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular disease: a case study in Kermanshah, Iran. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 16(11), 43-46.‏
Khashei, M., Bijari, M., & Ardali, G. A. R. (2012). Hybridization of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) with probabilistic neural networks (PNNs). Computers & Industrial Engineering, 63(1), 37-45.‏
Lavigne, E., Villeneuve, P. J., & Cakmak, S. (2012). Air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 4-8.‏
Li, H., Wang, J., Li, R., & Lu, H. (2019). Novel analysis–forecast system based on multi-objective optimization for air quality index. Journal of cleaner production, 208, 1365-1383.
Liang, W. M., Wei, H. Y., & Kuo, H. W. (2009). Association between daily mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and air pollution in Taiwan. Environmental research, 109(1), 51-58.‏
Lin, H., An, Q., Luo, C., Pun, V. C., Chan, C. S., & Tian, L. (2013). Gaseous air pollution and acute myocardial infarction mortality in Hong Kong: A time-stratified case-crossover study. Atmospheric environment, 76, 68-73.‏
Liu, L., Breitner, S., Schneider, A., Cyrys, J., Brüske, I., Franck, U., ... & Wehner, B. (2013). Size-fractioned particulate air pollution and cardiovascular emergency room visits in Beijing, China. Environmental research, 121, 52-63.‏
Mansourian, M., Javanmard, S. H., Poursafa, P., & Kelishadi, R. (2010). Air pollution and hospitalization for respiratory diseases among children in Isfahan, Iran. Ghana medical journal, 44(4).‏
Moayedi, H., & Rezaei, A. (2020). The feasibility of PSO–ANFIS in estimating bearing capacity of strip foundations rested on cohesionless slope. Neural Computing and Applications, 1-13.‏
Mosallanezhad, B. & Ahmadi, A. (2018). Using fuzzy FMEA to increase patient safety in fundamental processes of operating room. Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering, 11(3), 146-166.‏
Naik, B., & Mohanta, K. L. (2020). Air Pollutants and Health Effects at Different Locations in Dhaka City. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 7(6), 860-868.‏
Pan, R., Wang, X., Yi, W., Wei, Q., Gao, J., Xu, Z., ... & Su, H. (2020). Interactions between climate factors and air quality index for improved childhood asthma self-management. Science of The Total Environment, 723, 137804.‏
Puth, M. T., Neuhäuser, M., & Ruxton, G. D. (2014). Effective use of Pearson's product–moment correlation coefficient. Animal behaviour, 93, 183-189.‏
Riahi-Madvar, H., Dehghani, M., Seifi, A., Salwana, E., Shamshirband, S., Mosavi, A., & Chau, K. W. (2019). Comparative analysis of soft computing techniques RBF, MLP, and ANFIS with MLR and MNLR for predicting grade-control scour hole geometry. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 13(1), 529-550.‏
Saadat, S., Sadeghian, S., Hamidian, R., & Najafi, M. A. (2009). The Association of Air Pollution and Emergency Medical Service Seeking. The Journal of Tehran University Heart Center, 4(3), 159-164.‏
San Tam, W. W., Wong, T. W., & Wong, A. H. (2015). Association between air pollution and daily mortality and hospital admission due to ischaemic heart diseases in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment, 120, 360-368.‏
Shahi, A. M., Omraninava, A., Goli, M., Soheilarezoomand, H. R., & Mirzaei, N. (2014). The effects of air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory causes of emergency admission. Emergency, 2(3), 107.‏
Sokoty, L., Rimaz, S., Hassanlouei, B., Kermani, M., & Janani, L. (2021). Short-term effects of air pollutants on hospitalization rate in patients with cardiovascular disease: a case-crossover study. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-8.‏
Su, T. C., Chen, S. Y., & Chan, C. C. (2011). Progress of ambient air pollution and cardiovascular disease research in Asia. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 53(5), 369-378.‏
Tao, Y., Mi, S., Zhou, S., Wang, S., & Xie, X. (2014). Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou, China. Environmental pollution, 185, 196-201.‏
Xue, Y., Chu, J., Li, Y., & Kong, X. (2020). The influence of air pollution on respiratory microbiome: A link to respiratory disease. Toxicology Letters, 334, 14–20.
Zhang, L. W., Chen, X., Xue, X. D., Sun, M., Han, B., Li, C. P., ... & Zhao, B. X. (2014). Long-term exposure to high particulate matter pollution and cardiovascular mortality: a 12-year cohort study in four cities in northern China. Environment international, 62, 41-47.‏
Volume 13, Issue 3
July 2021
Pages 216-242
  • Receive Date: 16 January 2021
  • Revise Date: 24 February 2021
  • Accept Date: 03 March 2021
  • First Publish Date: 03 March 2021